Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose شماره 85

volume Number : 16
number In Volume : 3
issue Number : 85

Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
volume Number 16، number In Volume 3، ، issue Number 85

architextuality reading of Hafez's poems based on Gerard Genet's theory of transtextuality

Farideh Riazinia , Ali Fallah (Author in Charge), Mohammad Ali Khaledian


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This article was written with the purpose of architextuality reading of Hafez"s poems based on Gerard Genet"s theory of transtextuality. Genet calls the long-term relationship between a work and the type it belongs to as architextuality. For this purpose, considering the importance of the typology of Hafez"s poems, this issue has been investigated in the context of architextuality reading.

METHODOLOGY: This research has been conducted as a theoretical study in the form of a laboratory study. The scope of the study is Hafez"s Diwan Ghazliat edited by Ghasem Ghani and Mohammad Qazvini. In this research, an attempt was made to analyze Hafez"s poems based on Gerard Genet"s theory of transtextuality in a descriptive-analytical way.

FINDINGS: According to Genet"s concept of transtextuality, the results of the research indicate that the main text of Hafez"s poems can also be classified into the following types in terms of type and form: "political, didactic, eulogizing, appropriate, boastful, satirical and Satire, philosophical-mystical, prayerful, calumny and reproach."

CONCLUSION: Based on this, the results of this research have shown that the main text of Hafez"s poems includes critical political poems, political praise poems, political resistance, political satire and political epic. Praise poems can be classified into types such as laudatory praise, descriptive laudatory, elegiac laudatory, descriptive laudatory, boastful laudatory. After the type of "prayer" and "humor and satire", the main text of Hafez"s romantic and mystical poems can be classified under the philosophical and mystical type. On the other hand, the reprimanding poems of Hafez have titles such as "giving oneself over to blame and not being afraid and not angry at the slander of those who appear, avoiding the worldly world and thinking about goodness and expediency and disregarding name and shame, avoiding asceticism and ascetic sellers, avoiding hypocrisy, a critical view of It is classified as formal institutions, avoiding the claim of discovery and virtues, covering up flaws, avoiding self-righteousness and selfishness, fighting with the ego, and seeking salvation in love.

Transtextuality , Gerard Genet , Hafez , Hafez's poems , Architextuality reading.

  • Abdullah Nejad, Mojtaba. (2017). Dar Hajv-e Hasti, the Internet website of the House of Poets of the World, published on 2/4/2017 at the Internet address:
  • Asadollahi, Khodabakhsh & Lotfi, Azam. (2015). “Hafez's satirical style”. Grammatical and Rhetorical Research, 6(9), pp.9-27.
  • Bahmani, Amirhossein & others. (2016). “A survey of hypertext in Indian style ghazal”, Ghanai Literary Research Journal, 15 (28), pp.77-96.
  • Barzegar, Ehsan, Tavossi, Mahmoud & Mahouzi, Mehdi. (2014). “Hafez's epic creation and his influence from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh”. Research Journal of Epic Literature (Former Culture and Literature), 11(20), pp.25-56.
  • Chenari, Abdul Amir. (2005). “Irony in Hafez's poetry”, Research Journal of Human Sciences, No.45-46, pp.39-52.
  • Dadbeh, Asghar. (2006). “A discussion on the influence of philosophy on literature: inspired by Suhrawardi's view on mystical intuition”, Eshraq Magazine, No. 4-5, pp.15-36.
  • Eskandari Verzli, Hossein. (2008). “Humorous themes and its tricks in Sa’adi and Hafez's sonnets”. Daneshnameh, 1(1), pp.18-3.
  • Gérar. G. (1992). The architext: An introduction. Trans. by Jane E. Lewin. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Gérard، Genette. (1997). Palimpsestes. La littérature au second degré. Paris: Seuil.
  • Ghasemipour, Qodrat. (2010). “Face vs. type: a discussion in the realm of the theory of literary types”, Scientific-Research Quarterly of Literary Criticism, 3 (10), pp.63-89.
  • Hafez, Shamsuddin Mohammad. (2003). By the efforts of Mohammad Qazvini and Qasim Ghani, Tehran: Jeyhun.
  • Halabi, Aliasghar. (1998). The history of humor and humor in Iran and the Islamic world, first edition, Tehran: Behbahani.
  • Hashemi, Ayyub. (2010). “The nectar of prayer in the poems of Hafez”, Islamic Mysticism (Religions and Mysticism), 6 (24), pp.75-88.
  • Ishani, Tahereh. (2017). Social-critical poems of Hafez Shirazi, Tehran: Dolat Elm.
  • Izdiyar, Mohsen. (2012). “Analysis of free thinking in Hafez's poetry”. Literary Aesthetics, 4(15), pp.15-38.
  • Karimi, Najmie. (2015). “The crystallization of Hafez's cultural comprehensiveness and mystical thoughts in his poetry”. Scientific Quarterly of Mysticism in Persian Literature, 7(27), pp.132-152.
  • Khorramshahi, Bahauddin. (1989). Fourteen narratives of a collection of essays on Hafez's poetry and personality, Tehran: Flight Kitab.
  • Khorramshahi, Bahauddin. (2004). Hafez's mind and language, Tehran: Nahid.
  • Namvar Mutalgh, Bahman. (2006). “Transtextuality, the study of the relationships of one text with other texts”, Research Journal of Humanities, No.56, pp.83-98.
  • Nasr Esfahani, Mohammadreza. (2002). “The charisma of Mashoqi in Diwan Hafez and Ibn Faraz”, Applied Sociology, Isfahan, (14), pp. 55-76.
  • Nassaj, Hamid & Haji Mazdarani, Morteza. (2013). “Typology of Persian poetry from the perspective of political literature”, interdisciplinary studies in human sciences, 6 (4), pp.85-122.
  • Rastgar Fasai, Mansour. (1993). "Types of Persian poetry" (discussions on the forms and meanings of ancient and modern Persian poetry), first chapter, Shiraz: Navid Shiraz.
  • Razi, Ahmad & Farhani, Soheyla. (2012). “Educational tone in Diwan Hafez”, Research Journal of Persian Language and Literature, 5 (18), pp.79-102.
  • Razmjo, Hossein. (2006). "Literary genres and their works in the Persian language", Ch. II, Mashhad: Mashhad Ferdowsi University Press.
  • Sadeghzadeh, Mahmoud. (2009). “Investigation of Hafez's satirical types and methods”, Educational and Lyrical Researches of Persian Language and Literature, 2(5), pp.75-114.
  • Shafiei Kadkani, Mohammadreza. (2012). Tanz Hafez, Iranboom website, published on 6/19/1392, at the internet address:
  • Shafii Kadkani, Mohammadreza & Dorudian, Vali Allah. (2006). This is the chemistry of you: a collection of articles and notes by Shafiei Kadkani about Hafez, Tehran: Aydin.
  • Shamisa, Siroos. (1991). The course of Ghazal in Persian poetry, Tehran: Ferdous.
  • Shamisa, Siroos. (2008). Literary genres, third edition, Tehran: Mitra.
  • Shushtari, Morteza. (2009). “Debate in Persian literature”, Kihan Farhangi, No.290 & 291, pp.60-66.
  • Zakeri, Ahmad. (2016). “Critical analysis of mystical discourse in Hafez's sonnets”, Islamic mysticism (Religions and Mysticism), 14 (35), pp.185-200.
  • Zarinkoob, Abdulhossein. (2014). From Kuche Rendan, Tehran: Sokhan.
  • Zarinkoob, Abdulhossein. (2019). Searching in Iranian Sufism, Tehran: International Publishing Company (affiliated with Islamic Propaganda Organization).
  • Zarqani, Seyyed Mahdi. (2019). Literary history of Iran and the territory of the Persian language, second edition, Tehran: Sokhan.