- Count View : 26
- Doi: 10.22034/bahareadab.2023 .16 .7074
Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
volume Number 16، number In Volume 8، ، issue Number 90
The study of Attar's style in Qalandriyat and Khamriyat based on the analysis of poetic elements
Morad Noushadifard , Mehdi Malek Sabet (Author in Charge), Mohammad Reza Najjarian , Mohammad Khodadadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Qalandriyat refers to poems on the outer and inner lineaments of Qalandars, such as their beliefs, ceremonies, and lifestyle. The essay analyzes the constituent elements of Attar Nishaburi’s Qalandriyat and Khamriyat. The elements include form, language, music, semantic contexts, emotions, and imagery. The central objective of the study is to determine the stylistic features of Attar"s poetry, as exhibited in the mentioned poems. METHODOLOGY: This is a library study. It employs a descriptive-comparative analysis method. After reviewing the basic concepts, the research path is as follows: the form of the poems, the language element at the phonological, lexical, and syntactic levels, the musical element at the external, side, and middle levels, semantic contexts with an emphasis on the main themes of the poems, The element of affection through scrutinizing poet"s self, and finally, the imagery with the focus of figurative speech, simile, metaphor, and irony. FINDINGS: Along with fixed rhythm, long rhymes, and lexical repetition, the mechanic form has imposed undesirable limitations on the poems. In the syntactic level of language, imperative verbs and sentences have dominance. They present the poetic style of Attar Neishaburi. The external music of his poems is limited to quatrain rhythm. The side music shows his intetion to maximizing the harmony in his poetry. The middle music bases on the element of lexical repetition. Due to the meaning, wine concepts, swinger, Carpe diem, and death significance are more mentioned and most frequent. The element of affection has emerged with the poet"s social self. CONCLUSION: Implying the imperative form of sentences, lexical repetition, social self significance, irony, and figurative speech are the most noteworthy stylistic features of Attar Nishabouri in Qalandriyat and Khamriyat. Some approaches of the poet, such as emphasizing the mechanical form, fixed rhythm, and long rhymes, have imposed limitations on his poetry.
Quatrains , Stylistics , Attar Nishaburi , poetic elements , Qalandriat , Khamriat
- Akbarizadeh, Hamzeh et al. (2022), "Intellectual stylistics of the quatrains of Attar's Mukhtarnama", Persian Poetry and Prose Stylistics (Bahar Adab), 72(1), pp. 205-188.
- Alirezaei, Leila and Fereshte Ahmadi. (2022). The structural stylistics of Attar Neishabouri's Divine, Tehran: Nowrozi.
- Amir Moezi, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik Neishaburi. (1939). Diwan of Amir al-Shoara Moezi, edited by Abbas Iqbal Ashtiani, Tehran: Islamiyah.
- Attar Neishabouri, Sheikh Faridaldin. (2008). Mokhtarnameh, introduction by Mohammadreza Shafiei Kadkani, Tehran: Negah.
- Broumand Saeed, Javad. (2015). "Morphophonemics and derivation of Qalandar", Iranian Studies Journal, 10(5), pp. 33-55.
- Burhan Tabrizi, Mohammad Hossein ibn Khalaf. (1952). Borhan Qate’, Introduction and proofreading by Mohammad Moein, Tehran: Ibn Sina Library.
- Hasanpour, Mehrdad. (2016). "The influence of Qalandriyya’s thoughts and ideas on Diwan Shams Tabrizi", master's thesis in Persian literature, Supervised by Torab Jangi Kahraman, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran branch.
- Homayi, Jalaluddin. (2010). Rhetoric and Literary Techniques, Tehran: Ahura.
- Hosseini Zubaydi Waseti, Seyyed Murteza. (2008). Bridal Crown from Jewel dictionary, researched by Ali Shiri, Beirut: Dar al-Fikr.
- Khorramshahi, Bahauddin. (1999). Hafeznameh, 8th print, Tehran: Elmi va Farhangi.
- Masoom Shirazi, Muhammad. (1966). Paths to the realities, edited by Mohammad Ja’afar Mahjoub, Tehran: Barani.
- Mirabedini, Abutaleb and Mehran Afshari. (1995). Qalandari traditions, Tehran: Farawan.
- Mohabbati, Mehdi et al. (2017). "Narrative Quatrains in Attar Nishaburi's Mokhtarnama", Mystical Literature Journal, 18(1), pp. 57-81.
- Nosrati, Mehrdad. (2012). Introduction to literary meta-criticism, Kerman: Author.
- Nowrozi, Zahra. (2018). "Qalandar and its poetic and semantic forms in the works of Sanai, Attar, Rumi and Hafez", master's thesis in Persian literature, Supervised by Haider Qolizadeh, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan.
- Qavami, Badrieh. (2012). "Description of Qalandari Themes in Persian Ghazal (Sanaei, Attar, Rumi, Iraqi and Hafez)", Bachelor's Thesis of Persian Language and Literature, Tarbiat Moalam University.
- Rafipour, Faramarz. (1998). Anatomy of Society or Tradition of Allah: An Introduction to Applied Sociology, Tehran: Kaveh.
- Rezaei, Ehteram. (2009). Wine poetry in Persian literature, 2nd print, Tehran: Amirkabir.
- Sa’ad Salman, Masoud. (1983). Diwan of Masoud Sa’ad Salman, revised and introduced by Nasser Hayeri, Tehran: Golshaie.
- Saeidi, Kamyar and Hasan Soltani Kohbanani. (2019). "Analysis of the sociological application of ironic types in Attar Neishaburi’s tragedy ", Journal of Applied Rhetoric and Rhetorical Criticism, 9(1), pp. 87-102.
- Sarraf, Morteza. (1970). "Qalandari ethics (1)", Armaghan Journal, 12-11(39), pp. 715-705.
- Sarraf, Morteza. (1971). "Qalandari ethics (2)", Armaghan Journal, 1(70), pp. 15-21.
- Shafi'i Kadkani, Mohammadreza. (2008). Qalandriyeh in History, 3rd print, Tehran: Sokhan.
- Shafi'i Kadkani, Mohammadreza. (2010). Poetry Music, 4th print, Tehran: Agah.
- Shamisa, Siroos. (1995). Development of quatrains in Persian poetry, 2nd edition, Tehran: Ferdous.
- Shamisa, Siroos. (2004). Literary criticism, 4th print, Tehran: Ferdous.
- Shamisa, Siroos. (2008). Poetry stylistics, 4th print, Tehran: Mitra.
- Shamisa, Siroos. (2009). Literary types, 4th print, Tehran: Mitra.
- Shamisa, Siroos. (2012). Expression, 4th print, Tehran: Mitra.
- Shamisa, Siroos. (2014). General stylistics, 4th print, Tehran: Mitra.
- Shrefati, Zahra and Zahra Norouzi. (2018). "Mystic and symbolic qualities of Qalandrs in the works of Sanai, Attar, Rumi and Hafez", Literature and Mysticism Journal, 5(2), pp. 137-160.
- Taefi, Shirzad and Atefeh Shahsund. (2012). "Examination of Qalandriyas in Diwan of Attar Neishaburi", Religions and Mysticism Journal, 2(1), pp. 39-62.
- Zarrinkob, Abdul Hossein. (1984). Searching in Iranian Sufism, Tehran: AmirKabir.
- Zarrinkob, Abdul Hossein. (1999). Voice of Simurgh’s wings, Tehran: Sokhan.