Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose شماره 82

volume Number : 15
number In Volume : 12
issue Number : 82

Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
volume Number 15، number In Volume 12، ، issue Number 82

The poetry of the constitutional era in dealing with colonialism

Hossein Bakhshi (Author in Charge)


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With the onset of colonialism in the world, which was accompanied by the industrial and technological advances of the West and then its military and weapons superiority, many reactions took place in the colonized countries; One of the most important reactions against the colonialists took place in the world of poetry and literature, and the free-thinking poets of these nations reflected on the aggressions and crimes of the colonialists. Persian poetry of the constitutional era was also very active in this field and the poets of this period entered the field of anti-colonial struggles with a great sense of commitment to their people and their land. In this research, we have tried to study the important works and encounters of the poets of this period with the phenomenon of colonialism by studying the important works of Persian poetry of the constitutional era.

METHODOLOGY: Our method in this research is based on library study and descriptive-analytical method.

FINDINGS: An examination of the poetry of this period shows that the poets of this period dealt with the issue of colonization in eight major ways:

Orientalism, Critique of the West and Western Civilization, Sanctions on Western Goods, Colonialism, Critique of Colonialism, Epicism, Nationalism, and Islamic Unity.

CONCLUSION: The poets of the constitutional era did not use the above methods in the same way; Some have been paid more, and some less, and this goes back to the power and conditions in Iran at that time.

Colonialism , Anti-Colonialism , Poetry , Constitutional Age.

  • Adamiyat, Fereydoun. (1978). Thoughts of Mirza Aga Khan Kermani, Second Edition, Tehran: Payam.
  • Adamiyat, Fereydoun. (1970). Thoughts of Mirza Fath Ali Akhondzadeh, Tehran: Kharazmi.
  • Akhundzadeh, Mirza Fath Ali. (ND). Letters, with introduction by Baqer Mo’meni, Tabriz: Ehya.
  • Amin, Ahmad. (1997). Muslim Pioneers of Modernism in the New Age, translated by Hassan Yousefi Eshkevari, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
  • Aref Qazvini. (2006). Divan of Aref Qazvini, by Rahim Chavosh Akbari, Tehran: Zavvar.
  • Bahar, Mohammad Taqi. (1956). Divan Bahar, vol. 1, Tehran: Amirkabir.
  • Bashardost, Mojtaba. (2011). Waves and Corals, Tehran: Soroush.
  • Dehghani, Mohammad. (2010). From the City of God to the City of Man, Tehran: Morvarid.
  • Farahani (Adib al-Malik). (2001). Divan of Adib al-Malik Farahani, edited by Mojtaba Barzabadi Farahani, vol. 1, second edition, Tehran: Ferdows.
  • Gilani, Seyed Ashraf. (2006). The Eternal Generalities of Nasim Shomal, by Hassan Namini, Second Edition, Tehran: Asatir.
  • Hedaji, Muhammad. (1989). Divan Hakim Hedaji, Introduction and correction by Ali Hashtroudi, Zanjan: Setareh Zanjan Bookstore.
  • Iqbal Lahori. (1987). Generalities of Persian Poems of Maulana Iqbal Lahori, Introduction by Ahmad Soroush, Second Edition, Tehran: Sanai Library.
  • Irajmirza. (1974). Divan of Irajmirza, by Mohammad Ja’far Mahjoub, third edition, Tehran: Andisheh.
  • Kasravi, Ahmad. (2005). Eighteen-year history of Azarbaijan, Tehran: Negah.
  • Kasravi, Ahmad. (1942). Message to European and American scientists, misplaced.
  • Kasravi, Ahmad (1945a). In the Way of Politics, Second Edition, misplaced.
  • Kasravi, Ahmad (1945 b). What is the solution today, Tehran: Ordibehesht Printing House.
  • Kermani, Nazim al-Islam. (1992). History of the Iranian Awakening, Fourth Edition, Tehran: Amirkabir.
  • Lahouti, Abolghasem. (2006). Divan of Abolghasem Lahouti, by Ahmad Bashiri, Tehran: Amirkabir.
  • Mirzadeh Eshghi. (1971). Illustrated generalities of Mirzadeh Eshghi, Ali Akbar Moshir Salimi, sixth edition, Tehran: Amirkabir.
  • Nasim Shomal newspaper, different periods.
  • Sa’adi. (1989). Sa’adi Park, Sharh Mohammad Khaza’eli, seventh edition, Tehran: Javidan.
  • Shaygan, Dariush. (2013). Asia vs. West, Tehran: Farzan-e Mehr.
  • Zarghani, Mehdi. (2012). Perspectives on Contemporary Iranian Poetry (Second Edition), Tehran: Sales.